Mazandaran Province is a Caspian province in the north of Iran. Located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. Sari is the largest and the capital city of Mazandaran province.
Mazandaran is one of the most densely populated provinces in Iran and has diverse natural resources, especially large reservoirs of oil and natural gas. The province's four largest counties are Sari, Behshahr, Babol, and Amol. The diverse nature of the province features plains, prairies, forests and rainforest stretching from the sandy beaches of the Caspian Sea to the rugged and snowcapped Alborz sierra.
Mazandaran is a major producer of farmed fish, and aquaculture provides an important economic in addition to traditional dominance of agriculture. Another important contributor to the economy is the tourism industry, as people from all of Iran enjoy visiting the area. Mazandaran is also a fast-growing centre for biotechnology and civil engineering.
Human habitation in the area dates back at least 75,000 years. Recent excavations in Goher Tippe provide proof that the area has been urbanized for more than 5,000 years, and the area is considered one of the most important historical sites of Iran. It has played an important role in cultural and urban development of the region.
Mazandaran province is geographically divided into two parts: the coastal plains, and the mountainous areas. The Alborz Mountain Range surrounds the coastal strip and plains of the Caspian Sea. Due to permanent sea breeze and local winds of the southern and eastern coasts of the Caspian Sea, sandy hills are formed, causing the appearance of a low natural barrier between the sea and plain. There is often snowfall in the Alborz regions, which run parallel to the Caspian Sea's southern coast, dividing the province into many isolated valleys. The province enjoys a moderate, subtropical climate with an average temperature of 25 °C in summer and about 8 °C in winter. Although snow may fall heavily in the mountains in winter, it rarely falls at sea level.
Apart from the breathtaking shores and seaside villas, Mazandaran has a large number of historical sites in the following towns: Behshahr: The ancient bridge of Aq Qala on the Gorgan River, Safi Abad Palace, the historical buildings of Abbasid pool, and the caves of Kamarband and Huter that contain relics from the early humans. Other tourist resorts include: Shapur Bridge in Savad Kuh, the holy mausoleums of Imamzadeh Ibrahim and Imamzadeh Qasem in Amol, Dadekan Mill, the cable car and recreational complex of Namak Abrud, Ashuradeh caviar- catching harbor, the protected park of Dashte Naz plain in Sari (the habitat of unique Iranian deer), Golestan National Park, and the springs and mineral waters of Ramsar. As Mazandaran is a beautiful province, there are a lot of tourist facilities such as hotels, motels, villas, etc., in the towns across the province. Among the historical relics of the past few centuries, one can name, "House of Golbadi" in Sari, The House of Darooyi, Kia, Fatemi, Mofidian, Baqeri, Khansari, Taqavi, Amir Lotfi and Shirangi in Gorgan, the House of Alizadeh in Amol, the Houses of Kashani, Najafi and Hsanpoor in Babol.
Mazandaran province naturally comes under the influence of the geographical latitude, Alborz heights, elevation from sea level, and distance from the sea, and the southern barren areas of Turkmenistan, local and regional air currents, and versatile vegetation cover. Therefore, prompting the climate of the province to be divided into three types: Moderate Caspian weather with hot, humid summers, and mild, humid winters. Moderate mountainous weather with long, cold, and freezing winters and mild and short summers, and cold mountainous weather with long freezing winters and short cool summers. There is often snowfall during most of the seasons in the latter region, which continues till mid-summer.
The western and central plains of the province, up to the northern foothills of Alborz Mountain Range, experience the mild climate of the Caspian region. In the 1,500- to 3,000-meter altitudes, there is a moderate mountainous climate, with long, cold winters, and short, mild summers. In this region, snow covers parts of the province even up to the middle of the warm season. In fact, snow can be observed in this region even in the warmest months of the year.
Dasht-e Naz Airport, serving the capital Sari, Noshahr Airport, and Ramsar Airport are the domestic airports that connect the province to the other parts of the country.
Mazandaran is served by the North Railway Dept. of the Iranian Railways. The department connects the province to Tehran to the south and Gorgan to the east. The cities of Sari, Qaemshahr, and Pol Sefid are major stations of the department.
Rice, grain, fruits, cotton, tea, tobacco, sugarcane, and silk are produced in the lowland strip along the Caspian shore. Oil wealth has stimulated industries in food processing, cement, textiles, cotton, and fishing (caviar). The province's pleasant and moderate climate, beautiful natural landscapes, and proximity to Tehran, have led the province to be one of the main recreational and tourism areas of Iran.